6 4 software (Fig  5C,D), with the number of pixels reflecting th

6.4 software (Fig. 5C,D), with the number of pixels reflecting the intensity find more of immunolabeling; this quantification allowed the comparison of OPN expression (Fig. 5E). Basal OPN labeling in controls did not vary significantly

over time. In envenomed muscle, OPN expression was significantly increased from 3 h to 14 days post-venom; maximal expression occurred at 3 days (31 ± 3.1%), and was slightly lower at 7 days (27 ± 1.2%) and 14 days (24.2 ± 3.2%) post-venom. At 21 days post-venom, the pixel density did not differ from the PBS control or envenomed muscle after 1 h. Image analyses of venom-treated muscles at 3 days post-venom showed double-labeled macrophages next to the endomysial space (alkaline phosphatase reaction in red plus peroxidase-based click here reaction in brown for CD68 and OPN, respectively) and in close contact with OPN-labeled muscle fibers (Fig. 6). The 3 day post-venom interval was chosen for double labeling because it corresponded to peak of OPN expression in muscle fibers. OPN reactivity was strong in the regenerating region

of envenomed muscle, but was rare or absent in regions not affected by venom. Fig. 7A–C shows regenerating fibers at 7 days post-venom. The muscle proliferative region contained mainly myotubes, with myoblasts being rarer. Both myoblasts (proliferative cells) and myotubes (differentiating cells) were strongly positive for OPN; mature fibers were also OPN+ (Fig. 7A,B). OPN-positive fibroblasts

were observed in the interstitium (Fig. 7C). Although the number of macrophages was highly reduced, their reactivity was as strong as in the previous time intervals (Fig. 7D). At day 7 post-venom, when myogenin expression was at its peak, this protein was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm of myoblasts and myotubes (Fig. 8A,B) whereas at subsequent intervals it was expressed only in the nucleus. Myogenin expression in envenomed Idelalisib chemical structure muscle was significantly greater than in control muscle from 18 h to 14 days post-venom, with a peak at 7 days (152.63 ± 60.45) followed by a decrease thereafter (Fig. 8C). No immunolabeling for anti-myoD was observed at any time interval, despite several attempts using different dilutions and incubation protocols. B. lanceolatus venom produced local tissue damage compatible with disturbances in hemostasis. At 3–6 h post-venom there was extensive hemorrhage, with inflammatory neutrophils and macrophages disseminated amongst the swollen or disintegrated muscle fibers. Class P-I ( Stroka et al., 2005) and P-III ( Gutiérrez et al., 2008) Zn2+-dependent metalloproteinases present in this venom probably contributes to the observed muscle damage, and inflammatory response, as also reported for other Bothrops venoms ( Gutiérrez, 1995; Rucavado et al., 1998, Rucavado et al., 2002 and Laing et al., 2003).

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