1 appears in the UniProt Knowledgebase under the accession number

1 appears in the UniProt Knowledgebase under the accession number P86386. Inhibitory effect of mutacin F-59.1 One milliliter of active preparation (1600 AU/mL) adjusted

to pH 7.0 was filter sterilised then added to 10 mL of an early-log-phase culture of Micrococcus luteus ATCC 272 grown in TSBYE. Bacterial culture in TSBYE was used as a negative control. The viable count in CFU/mL was determined at intervals for up to 24 h for samples and control during incubation at 37°C by plating 100 μL of an appropriate dilution in peptone water (0.1%) on TSAYE incubated at 37°C at least 24 h. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). We are grateful to Jean Barbeau of University of Montréal allowing selleck chemicals sequencing of mutacin D-123.1. We thank Alain Gaudreau of the STELA Dairy Research Center of Université selleck kinase inhibitor Laval for technical assistance in the purification process and France Dumas from the Biotechnology Research Institute

of Montréal for the sequencing procedure. We also thank Johnny Basso of University of Ottawa and Franck Stefani from Canadian Forest Service (Québec) for their critical review of the manuscript. Guillaume Nicolas is supported by a University-Industry Ph.D. Scholarship from NSERC and Microbio LCA Inc. Marc C. Lavoie is supported by a grant from the Caribbean Health Research Council to study mutacins. References 1. Fischbach MA, Walsh CT: Antibiotics for emerging pathogens. Science 2009, 325:1089–1093.PubMedCrossRef 2. Drider D, Fimland G, Héchard Y, McMullen LM, Prévost H: The mTOR inhibitor continuing story of class IIa bacteriocins. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2006, 70:5 64–82.CrossRef 3.

Smith L, Hillman JD: Therapeutic potential of type A (I) lantibiotics, a group of cationic peptide antibiotics. Curr Opin Microbiol 2008, 11:401–408.PubMedCrossRef 4. Jack RW, Tagg RJ, Ray B: Bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria. Microbiol Rev 1995, 59:171–200.PubMed 5. Asaduzzaman SM, Sonomoto K: Lantibiotics: diverse activities and unique modes of action. J Biosci Bioeng 2009, 107:475–487.PubMedCrossRef 6. Nicolas GG, Lavoie MC, Lapointe G: Molecular genetics, genomics and biochemistry of mutacins. Genes, Genomes and Genomics 2007, 1:193–208. 7. Mota-Meira M, LaPointe G, Lacroix C, Lavoie MC: MICs of mutacin B-Ny266, nisin A, vancomycin, and oxacillin against bacterial pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000, 44:24–29.PubMedCrossRef Verteporfin mw 8. Morency H, Mota-Meira M, LaPointe G, Lacroix C, Lavoie MC: Comparison of the activity spectra against pathogens of bacterial strains producing a mutacin or a lantibiotic. Can J Microbiol 2001, 47:322–331.PubMedCrossRef 9. Mota-Meira M, Morency H, Lavoie MC: In vivo activity of mutacin B-Ny266. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005, 56:869–871.PubMedCrossRef 10. Nicolas GG, Mota-Meira M, Lapointe G, Lavoie MC: Mutacins and their potential use in food preservation. Food 2007, 1:161–171. 11. Morency H, Trahan L, Lavoie MC: Preliminary grouping of mutacins.

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