resist HIV 1 infection, to macrophages, which are permissive for infection. Indeed, macrophage differentiation induced by monocyte colony stimulating factor or by PMA depends on PKC delta, which also activates NF ��B and associates with vimentin in the cyto selleck chem skeleton. Additionally, the C2 domain of PKC delta contains an actin binding site. This binding could be involved in the redistribution of actin in neutrophils. Thus, PKC delta is a very attractive cellular cofac tor for HIV 1 infection, particularly in macrophages. How ever, the e pression of PKC delta is not restricted to macrophages. Thus, effects of PKC delta, which are addressed by this study, could be e trapolated to other cell types such as T lymphocytes, where the cytoskeleton also plays a critical role in the viral replicative cycle.
In this study, we characterized effects of PKC delta on HIV 1 replication in human macrophages and demon strated that it plays Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a critical role at an early step of infection. Results PKC delta plays a major role in HIV 1 BaL replication in macrophages To determine the role of PKC in viral replication, macro phages were infected with the R5 tropic HIV 1 BaL in the presence or absence of chemical inhibitors of PKC. HIV 1 replication was assessed at day 3 post infection using p24 ELISA. Ro31 8220, which inhibits all PKC isozymes, decreased greatly viral replication. Interestingly, rottlerin, a spe cific PKC delta inhibitor, also blocked viral replica tion, whereas hispidin, a PKC beta inhibitor, had little to no effect. In Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries addition, Go6976, which inhibits PKC alpha, beta and gamma, had limited effects on viral replication.
These results suggest that PKC delta plays an important role in HIV 1 infection of macrophages. Moreover, as assessed by trypan blue e clusion, rottlerin was not cyto to ic at these concentrations, and HIV Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 1 BaL replication was similar in macro phages pre treated or not with rottlerin for 24 h, and subsequently washed and cultured for Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries an additional 24 h. Thus the effect of rottlerin is reversible. Strikingly, the preincubation of HeLa CD4 CCR5 C CR4 cells with in creasing concentrations of siRNA or antisense oligo nucleotides targeting PKC delta inhibited viral replication by 62 and 85%, respectively, while control siRNA or sense oligonucleotides had little to no effect. Indeed at these conditions, PKC delta e pression was suppressed strongly by siRNA or antisense oligonucleotides.
Replication of 4 tropic viral strain HIV 1 VN44 was also inhibited in HeLa R5 4 pre incubated with siRNA against PKC delta. To further confirm the effects of the PKC delta knockdown on viral replication, we infected primary human macrophages pre incubated with siRNAs against PKC delta with Dacomitinib HIV 1 BaL. We observed a 60% selleck chem DAPT secretase inhibition of viral replication at conditions in which PKC delta e pression was reduced by siRNA. This inhibition was in agreement with decreased levels of PKC delta. Altogether, these results demonstrate the import ance of PKC delta in the HIV 1 rep