The fully air-conditioned Wistari conference room offers a view l

The fully air-conditioned Wistari conference room offers a view like no other – the reef is right outside. After

‘work’ you can fish, swim, dive, reef walk, take a snorkel boat or semi-submersible trip, or enjoy a p38 MAPK signaling sunset cruise or island spa. Attendance is limited to 100 participants. Further Organisers: Paul Alewood, Richard Lewis and Glenn King. Enquiries to Thea:[email protected]
“Potassium channels are multiprotein complexes formed of conducting α-subunits which can be associated with regulatory β-subunits. The α subunit can assemble into homo or hetero-tetramers forming the K+ selective pore, which is structurally conserved between the different families of K+ channels (MacKinnon et al., 1998). The potassium voltage-gated channel family (KV channels) is activated by depolarization allowing an outward movement of potassium ions through

the pore of this multiprotein. This influx of ions repolarizes the membrane potential (Catterall, 1995). KV channels play a major role in a wide variety of physiological process such as regulation of heart rate, neuronal excitability, BEZ235 manufacturer muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, neurotransmitter release, insulin secretion, cell volume regulation and cell proliferation (Coetzee et al., 1999 and Abbas et al., 2008). This family of channels is remarkable because of their diversity, which include 40 different channels, classified into 12 distinct subfamilies based on their amino acid sequence homology (KV1 to KV 12) (Gutman et al., 2005). To access the specific function of each KV channel in the cell some selective blockers and modulators need to be identified and characterized. Because of their importance in many aspects of cellular regulation, the KV channels are molecular targets for a wide range of biological compounds such as animal toxins (Catterall et al., 2007). Scorpions are one of the most ancient groups of animals on earth, with more than 400 million years of evolution without big

changes in their morphology (Briggs, 1987). Their venoms contain a cocktail of components such as enzymes, peptides, nucleotides, lipids, mucoproteins, Paclitaxel biogenic amines and other unknown molecules (Possani et al., 1981). The venom of the Brazilian yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Tsv) has been extensively investigated and many of its toxins have been isolated and characterized (for review see Cologna et al., 2009). The best studied components of Tsv are the long chain toxins containing 60–70 amino acidic residues cross-linked by four disulfide brigdes and mainly active on NaV channels. Short chain toxins, composed of 30–42 amino acidic residues and cross-linked by three or four disulfide bridges, establish a second family of toxins from Tsv, most of them active on KV channels.

Furthermore, because FIB survival in the surfzone determines the

Furthermore, because FIB survival in the surfzone determines the duration of transport, factors regulating FIB growth and mortality in coastal waters are also central to our understanding of bacterial pollution

(Anderson et al., 2005, Boehm, 2003 and Boehm et al., 2005). Beach pollution events are often poorly predicted, and about 40% of contamination postings are erroneous (Kim and Grant, 2004). With over 550 million annual person-visits to California beaches, this inaccuracy impacts both selleck chemical individual beach goers and California’s multi-billion dollar coastal tourism industry (Grant et al., 2001). Predictive modeling of bacterial pollution using readily measured (or modeled) physical parameters (wave height/direction, river flow, rainfall, etc.) could be a cost-effective way to improve the accuracy of beach contamination postings. However, to be effective in a range of settings, these models require

mechanistic understanding of bacterial sources, transports, and extra-enteric growth or decay. Mechanistic understanding moves beyond correlations, and examines the effects of individual processes structuring beach pollution. Currently, mechanistic FIB models range in complexity from simple mass balance equations (Boehm, 2003, Boehm et al., 2005 and Kim et al., 2004) to 3D hydrodynamic Sirolimus datasheet simulations (Sanders et al., 2005, Liu et al., 2006, Thupaki et al., 2010, de Brauwere et al., 2011 and Zhu et al., 2011). In conjunction with field observations and laboratory studies, these models have been used to identify processes structuring nearshore FIB contamination such as alongshore currents (Kim et al., 2004, Liu et al., 2006 and Thupaki et al., 2010), tides (de Brauwere et al., 2011), internal waves (Wong et al., 2012), rip cells (Boehm, 2003 and Boehm et al., 2005), cross-shore diffusion (Thupaki et al., 2010 and Zhu et al., 2011), sediment resuspension buy Etoposide (Sanders

et al., 2005), solar insolation (Boehm et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2006 and Thupaki et al., 2010), and temperature (de Brauwere et al., 2011). To date, however, only a handful of studies have used models to look at the relative importance of these processes in the nearshore. Thupaki et al. (2010) used a 3D hydrodynamic model to show that FIB loss in Lake Michigan due to alongshore current reversals and diffusion was over an order of magnitude greater than loss due to mortality. Zhu et al. (2011), however, revealed the opposite pattern in a quiescent Florida embayment. Furthermore, simple mass budget models for California’s Huntington State Beach suggest that multiple processes can interchangeably dominate FIB dynamics (Boehm, 2003, Kim et al., 2004, Boehm et al., 2005 and Grant et al., 2005). Taken together, these studies imply that the processes controlling surfzone FIB are likely to vary both in time (at a given beach), and space (beach to beach).

Liver showed intense vascular dilation

and congestion, si

Liver showed intense vascular dilation

and congestion, sinusoidal congestion but no cholestasis, necrosis or inflammation. Kidneys also presented intense vascular dilation and congestion involving the glomerular capillaries and interstitial vasculature. Brains showed only moderate vascular congestion and edema but no necrosis or any other alteration. Representative Epigenetics inhibitor photomicrographies are shown in Fig. 2. Penile erection is a complex neurovascular phenomenon. In resting conditions cavernous smooth muscle fibers maintain a high intracellular calcium concentration that keeps the fibers contracted and prevent penile engorgement with blood and the consequent erection (Burnett, 1995). Under cavernous

nerve stimulation the enzyme nitric-oxide-synthase (NOS) is activated and the production of NO triggers an increase in cyclic-GMP and decrease in cytoplasmic calcium levels as well as phosphorylation of myosin, inducing the relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscles leading to penile erection (Burnett, 1995, 1997). Modern drugs used for erectile dysfunction impair the breakdown of cyclic GMP by inhibiting preferentially phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), one of the more than eleven PDE types already described. Sildenafil, verdanafil and tadalafil are members of this growing family of PDE5 inhibitors currently in use (Boolell et al., 1996; Goldstein et al., 1998). The present report demonstrates that Tx2-6 toxin can induce priapism in doses as low as to avoid most of the toxic life-threatening Cobimetinib mw symptoms. Unfortunately the useful dose range is still narrow compromising the application of this toxin in direct therapeutic practice. The mechanism of death observed in mice submitted to both crude venom and purified toxin seems to be related to vascular congestion and pulmonary hemorrhage,

which however was only focal. This should be regarded as important once lung is strongly related to NO production in pathological conditions (Lee et al., 2001). Both crude venom and pure toxin produced similar pathological findings with intense vascular congestion in kidney, liver, lungs and myocardium as well as a discrete brain edema. Therefore, we can suppose that the Amisulpride isolated toxin retains most of the toxicity of the crude venom. Another toxin from this venom called Tx2-5 differs from Tx2-6 by only 6 amino acids and induces priapism as well as all the other symptoms induced by Tx2-6. Recent investigations on the mechanism of action of the isoform toxin Tx2-5 carried out in our laboratory showed that priapism can be completely blocked by 7-nitroindazole, a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, suggesting that the NO-cGMP cascade may be involved in the toxin’s pro-erectile mechanism of action (Yonamine et al., 2004).

Below, we review the existing

literature linking specific

Below, we review the existing

literature linking specific genes with individual’s rank or the characteristics of the social hierarchy. We would also like to express a word of caution. The failure to replicate findings from previous candidate gene association studies is common and a major concern. Ideally, future studies should adhere to the recommendations as expressed by Buxbaum and others including the use of appropriately large sample sizes, standardized and careful data cleaning and corrections for multiple testing 19 and 20]. Unbiased genome-wide screens as exemplified by van der Loos and colleagues represent Ribociclib order a step in the right direction [21]. The monoaminergic systems have received considerable attention in

the context of social hierarchies probably due to their known roles in other related traits, such as aggression, emotionality, motivation and reward. A few studies have examined the potential role of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) in social dominance. Male SLC6A4 knockout (KO) mice, while able to form a social hierarchy, are submissive in dyadic encounters with wildtype mice [22]. However, the interpretation of these results should take into account that these mice also display increased anxiety and reduced locomotion 23 and 24]. In rhesus monkeys and humans, the SERT presents genetic variation, selleck including functional short and a long allele versions, which are associated to differences in emotion regulation and increased anxiety in short allele-carriers [26]. Whereas in female cynomolgus macaques, no individual SLC6A4 variants or haplotypes were significantly associated with social rank [27], female rhesus monkeys carrying the SLC6A4 short allele were found to be most often involved in agonistic behavior regardless of social rank [28]. These findings suggest that SLC6A4 might influence social hierarchies by acting through other aspects of social behavior instead of directly affecting social rank. This is in line with human data indicating PRKACG that differences in the frequency

of the SLC6A4 allele variants in specific populations is associated with differences in social hierarchy beliefs (i.e. cultural values of individualism and collectivism) 28 and 29]. Nations that are more hierarchically organized (as indicated by greater power distance) were found to be composed of more individuals carrying at least one short allele of the SLC6A4 gene [28]. Recently, a gene-environment interaction model has been proposed to more accurately explain cross-national differences in social hierarchy values and beliefs. Data from 28 societies supported an interaction between population frequency of the SLC6A4 gene and presence of threats on the prediction of population level of acceptance of social hierarchies and central authority [30].

Indeed, tracking of bar-coded progenitors transferred into irradi

Indeed, tracking of bar-coded progenitors transferred into irradiated Metformin in vivo mice indicates that lineage divergence among myeloid cell types might occur as early as a stage upstream of MDPs known as the lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP) [ 20••]. Mouse MDPs and CDPs exhibit substantial phenotypic overlap [29]. They both lack lineage specifying markers, express CD115 and CD135 in addition to CX3CR1 and can only be distinguished

by the fact that CDPs express lower levels of CD117 (c-kit) than MDPs [27, 28, 29, 30 and 31]. We have recently demonstrated that DNGR-1 (encoded by the Clec9a gene and also known as CLEC9A) marks cells resembling CDPs but not MDPs. DNGR-1+ CDPs exhibit cDC-restricted differentiation potential and do not generate pDCs after adoptive

transfer [ 21••] or in vitro culture with Flt3L (BUS and CRS, unpublished observations). DNGR-1+ CDP express CD115, consistent with the recent demonstration that CD115+ CDPs exhibit a strong clonal bias to generate cDCs, whereas pDCs arise predominantly from CD115 negative CDPs [ 19•]. Thus, cDCs and pDCs appear to have distinct immediate progenitors, which can be distinguished by expression of CD115 [ 19•] and DNGR-1 [ 21••]. Some CD115+ CDP, which presumably express DNGR-1 [ 21••], have combined cDC and pDC potential in clonal assays [ 19•, 30 and 31], although the interpretation of such experiments might be marred by the reported in vitro developmental plasticity of differentiating DCs [ 35]. Altogether, these data can be integrated into a revised map of DC differentiation that takes into account the fact that cDCs, pDCs and monocytes develop Cetuximab in vitro as distinct lineages although the exact developmental Erastin intermediates and branching points remain to be clarified and may display considerable

plasticity ( Figure 1). Dependence on FLT3L is sometimes used as evidence that a given leukocyte should be considered a member of the DC lineage [36, 37 and 38]. This is because FLT3L strongly expands pDCs and cDCs in vivo [ 28, 39 and 40] and can be used to generate all functional subsets of DCs in vitro [ 41]. Conversely, mice lacking Flt3L display a severe deficiency in DCs, which is also apparent, although to a lesser extent, in mice lacking its receptor CD135 (Flt3) [ 42] or treated with CD135 inhibitors [ 43 and 44]. GM-CSF, on the other hand, is extensively used to differentiate monocytes into cells resembling DCs in vitro [ 45] but mice lacking GM-CSF or its receptor have normal development of monocyte-derived cells [ 46•] as well as lymphoid tissue DCs [ 28 and 47]. Instead, they exhibit a specific reduction of cDCs in many, but not all, non-lymphoid tissues [ 46•, 48, 49 and 50]. The GM-CSF dependence of CD103+ cDCs is stronger than that of CD11b+ cDCs [ 46•] although the extent of reduction relates to the markers used for cell identification [ 46• and 49], possibly because GM-CSF regulates CD103 expression [ 51].

The main reasons are: – it would introduce stricter limits in ter

The main reasons are: – it would introduce stricter limits in terms of catches (through quotas) and in terms of fishing time; Following these considerations, MAREMED project partners agreed that Mediterranean fishermen should not be forced into a TFC system, but rather be directly involved in fisheries management at the local level, and made more responsible through the participation in the development and implementation of specific management plans. This study was conducted with the GKT137831 chemical structure financial support of the Commission of the European Communities within the MAREMED

Project – Maritime Regions Cooperation for Mediterranean ( – MED Transnational Cooperation Program financed by the European Regional Development Fund). It does not necessarily reflect the European Commission’s views and in no way anticipates its future policy. This support is gratefully selleck inhibitor acknowledged. “
“In the paper ‘EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and Marine Spatial Planning (MSP): Which is the more dominant

and practicable contributor to maritime policy in the UK?’ published in Marine Policy 2013;43:359–366, co-author Jonathon Brennan’s affiliation is shown as Natural England. Jonathon Brennan would like to point out that at the time when the work was carried out, his affiliation was the School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle on Tyne, UK. The views put forward in the article do not necessarily reflect the views of his current employer, Natural England. “
“In the Pacific Islands Countries and Territories (PICTs), coastal capture based fisheries contribute substantially to local subsistence and market economies [1] and [2], while the offshore tuna fisheries are particularly valuable national assets [1] and [3]. Marine capture fisheries typically dominate the fisheries of PICTs [4] although TCL production in recent decades has seen a gradual decline, similar to global fishery

trends [5], [6] and [7]. The industrialisation of fisheries since the 1950s has led to the well documented overexploitation of marine resources with a number of fisheries collapsing [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14] and [15]. There is overwhelming evidence that human activities are profoundly altering marine ecosystems on a global scale [16], [17] and [18]. Of particular concern are the environmental changes that human activity is causing to the functioning of coral reef ecosystems that support fisheries upon which millions of people, including all of the PICTs, depend [19]. One of the responses to declining capture fisheries has been a dramatic rise in aquaculture production. With a global reduction in wild capture of more than 0.5 million tonnes per year from 2004 to 2010, aquaculture has been increasing in production at approximately 2.5 million tonnes per year over the same period [20]. Globally, aquaculture contributed 63.

O objetivo desta abordagem foi o de tentar criar um novo encerram

O objetivo desta abordagem foi o de tentar criar um novo encerramento

da ansa, desta vez endoscópico, utilizando os tecidos sãos proximais à deiscência e excluindo-a deste modo do contacto com o conteúdo luminal. A possibilidade de encerramento luminal completo, utilizado deliberadamente neste caso clínico, foi descrito como efeito adverso da técnica em 2 casos de uma série publicada já em 201224. A evolução clínica e laboratorial foi rápida, com resolução do quadro séptico após 3 dias e restabelecimento da via oral após uma semana. Imagiologicamente comprovou-se o encerramento de todo o trajeto fistuloso por tomografia computorizada e exame contrastado. Concluindo, descreve-se o encerramento de uma deiscência pós-cirúrgica por método endoscópico, nomeadamente com o sistema OTSC, realizado mediante uma variante da técnica descrita, uma vez que o encerramento da deiscência não foi realizado diretamente, mas sim através da aplicação do clip a montante desta, em mucosa sã, permitindo o seu encerramento e resolução do quadro supurativo e de sépsis toraco-abdominal por segunda intenção. A ausência de estudos prospetivos comparativos da utilização de técnicas Ganetespib in vivo endoscópicas no encerramento de deiscências cirúrgicas determina que a escolha do método terapêutico deva ser individualizada, considerando não só as características das fístulas como a experiência do operador. Os autores declaram que para esta investigação não se realizaram

experiências em seres humanos e/ou animais. Os autores declaram que não aparecem dados de pacientes neste artigo. Os autores declaram ter recebido consentimento escrito dos pacientes e/ou sujeitos mencionados no artigo. O autor para correspondência deve estar na posse deste documento. Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses. “
“A amiloidose é uma entidade rara

caracterizada pela deposição extracelular de proteínas fibrilares anormais insolúveis em vários tecidos ou órgãos e que caracteristicamente coram com o Vermelho do Congo. A classificação dos tipos de amiloidose baseia-se na identificação da proteína precursora que forma os respetivos depósitos1, 2 and 3. A amiloidose primária (imunoglobulinas monoclonais de cadeias leves, AL) constitui o tipo mais comum de amiloidose e está associada a discrasia de células (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate plasmáticas e à presença de cadeias leves monoclonais no soro e/ou na urina4. Os órgãos mais comumente afetados são o coração e os rins5. Cerca de 15% destes doentes apresentam mieloma múltiplo, sendo este o tipo de amiloidose que mais frequentemente envolve o trato gastrointestinal, podendo afetar qualquer parte do tubo digestivo e apresentar-se de forma distinta consoante a sua localização2 and 4. As manifestações clínicas e endoscópicas são inespecíficas, podendo mimetizar outras doenças do foro digestivo2, 3, 4 and 6. A amiloidose primária (AL) raramente se apresenta com hemorragia gastrointestinal aguda, especialmente na ausência de doença noutra parte do organismo5.

The value chain module of the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) software

The value chain module of the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) software system [8] as developed by Christensen et al. [9] served as the structuring element for the analysis. The value chain module was used to describe the flow of seafood products from fishing fleets through the various enterprises of the fisheries sector and on through to the ultimate consumer. Selleckchem ZVADFMK For each step this

involved an evaluation of the revenue, cost, employment, and salaries per unit weight of production, in order to obtain overall estimates for contribution of the entire fisheries sector to the economy of and employment in Peru. The study was based on information about the fisheries sector collected for 2009 or averaged over the period 2009–2012. Metric ton (t) of fish was used as the fundamental unit throughout the analysis. Employment was estimated based on the number of people employed per t processed per day, scaled to annual employment based on annual production figures. All revenue and cost figures were expressed

in US$. The first step of the value chain analysis was to define the various enterprises that form learn more part of the sector, (see Table 1 for an overview). For each enterprise, the revenue, cost of operation, and employment was then evaluated in considerable detail. A data file with the combined ecosystem model and value chain data is available on request from the corresponding author. All estimates for landings, processing (seafood input destined for reduction, curing,

freezing, and canning, as well as output), internal consumption (by type of product; e.g., cans of fish, fresh fish) and exports (by product) Tolmetin were obtained from the official statistics of the Peruvian Ministry of Production (PRODUCE). Landings per fishing gear/fleet were reconstructed from the official data of Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE) data for the artisanal fleets, and the official data from PRODUCE data for the industrial fleets. The number of fishers was estimated as the product of the number of vessels per fleet and the average crew size. The number of vessels was obtained from PRODUCE, IMARPE, and Estrella et al. [10]. The average crew size was estimated based on: (i) interviews with artisanal fishermen (n=60) and vessel owners (n=25) along the coast; (ii) direct observations; and (iii) literature including, Alfaro-Shigueto et al. [11] and Estrella et al. [10]. Gender ratios for all enterprises was based on direct observations. In order to estimate employment in fishmeal and fish oil processing plants, the number of factories that were operating in 2009 were divided in four groups based on processing capacity. The number of people employed in each group was estimated using information gathered in interviews with fishmeal entrepreneurs, fishmeal plant owners and workers, and other key informants.

It is unknown how much of the substance was found at the location

It is unknown how much of the substance was found at the location where exposure occurred. After sampling by the local Fire Department of the substance found on a trampoline, emergent analysis of the unknown substance identified it as permethrin. Subsequently, the patients were diagnosed with acute permethrin poisoning. Patient #1 is a five-year-old previously healthy female who, along with her siblings, had bathed a puppy, poured the unknown chemical on a trampoline, then played with it and possibly ingested

some of it. Eight hours following suspected ingestion, she presented to an outside Emergency Department (ED) with symptoms of increased lacrimation, salivation, bronchorrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and significant respiratory depression and altered mental status. She was intubated, volume-resuscitated and administered two doses of 1 mg atropine, FDA-approved Drug Library then transferred to the PICU at our facility. Upon admission, she manifested symptoms of excessive secretions and pinpoint pupils. Hence, she was given two further doses of 1 mg atropine with no therapeutic response. The patient continued to be comatose with no response to anticholinergic management; hence, the chemical found at the site of exposure was emergently analyzed and determined to be permethrin and not organophosphate, AZD8055 as initially suspected. The existing literature was reviewed, poison control was contacted again and further treatment was discussed as being mainly supportive. Continuous bedside electroencephalogram

(EEG) monitoring was performed because of the potential for permethrin to cause subclinical status epilepticus. Subsequently, benzodiazepine therapy was initiated. The patient remained comatose and on mechanical ventilation with poor deep tendon reflexes, muscle weakness, pinpoint pupils,

increased secretions and diarrhea, and elevated body temperature for one week. Head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were reported as negative. She was started on gabapentin for possible paresthesia, a known association with permethrin toxicity. After eight days, click here the patient was extubated after demonstrating improved responsiveness, normal pupils, and decreased secretions. Patient #2 is a six-year-old female with similar exposure history. As this patient was related to Patient #1, diagnosis was made again based on the chief complaint and history of present illness, suspected ingestion of permethrin. Her initial presentation was not as severe as her sister’s, and did not require intubation at the outside ED. She received one dose of atropine and was transferred to the PICU for observation. After a few hours, her mental status deteriorated and she was intubated to protect her airway from excessive secretions. Unlike Patient #1, she also demonstrated signs of aspiration pneumonitis and abnormal motor movements. Her course was otherwise similar with high fever, pinpoint pupils, altered mental status, muscle weakness, profuse secretions and diarrhea.

This suggests a realized heritability of 0 439, 0 571 and 0 518 f

This suggests a realized heritability of 0.439, 0.571 and 0.518 from the single plant selection for seedling ST from the three BC2F2 populations. The initial screen for DT under the severe field drought conditions in Hainan resulted in 19 (4.0%), 29 (6.0%) and 33 (6.9%) plants with obviously higher fertility and GY than HHZ selected from the

HHZ/IR64, HHZ/AT354 and HHZ/C418 BC2F2 populations (Fig. 1). However, the severe drought in the progeny testing under the controlled conditions of the greenhouse in Beijing killed HHZ (no yield), but 12, 23 and 8 BC2F3 lines from the three populations survived and produced seeds, resulting in a realized heritability of 0.632, 0.793 and 0.242 from the single plant Selleck PFT�� selection for DT from the three BC2F2 populations in Hainan. When evaluated under the mild drought stress in Hainan during the 2011–2012 DS, 8 of the 43 DT selected ILs showed significantly higher GY than HHZ, and none of them had lower GY than HHZ (Table 1), indicating that the selection for DT was highly effective. When the 189 ILs were evaluated under drought stress and normal irrigated conditions of Hainan during the 2011–2012 DS, water treatments (T) had highly significant effect on SP600125 order all measured

traits, but this variation component varied considerably among different traits with R2 ranging from 2.3% for PN to 45.7% for FNP. On average, the yield reduction caused by the drought stress was 20% for HHZ (the recipient) but 36.1% for the 189 ILs. Differences among different ILs (G) were highly significant for all measured traits and accounted for an average 36.6% of the total trait variation, ranging from 26.7% for FNP to 53.9% for PH. The T × G interaction was insignificant

for all measured traits, indicating that all ILs performed consistently under drought stress and well watered conditions for the measured traits in this experiment. ANOVA also indicated that ILs from different populations showed significant differences for Tolmetin all measured traits except for PH, ranging from 2.3% for PN to 19.0% for GW. Similarly, different selection schemes had highly significant effects on the mean performances of the ILs for all traits except for SF and GY, ranging from 1.8% for PN to 38.4% for HD. Although all were highly significant, ILs selected from different populations (P) showed much greater trait variation than ILs obtained from different selection schemes (S). The P × S interaction was also significant for all measured traits, indicating that selection efficiency on any specific trait varied depending on the population (donor). Under normal irrigated conditions in Hainan, the 64 ILs selected for HY in Beijing had an average yield of 24.9 g per plant, or 13.2% higher than HHZ (Table 2). Of these, 8 ILs had significantly higher GY than HHZ, resulting primarily from increased SNP/FNP (Table 3). The remaining ILs had the same GY as HHZ.