4M0.75; where M is body mass in kg), and 3 × Kleiber. Facing an increase in drag, an individual can: (1) maintain a characteristic velocity and exponentially increase energy expenditure to overcome added drag; or (2) swim at
a reduced speed in order to maintain GW-572016 in vitro the same power output as if under normal conditions (Jones et al. 2011). For the latter case, the decrease in velocity (Ured, m/s) to maintain the same power output in an entangled drag scenario (DT), is (12) To determine the additional power demands experienced by Eg 3911 while entangled, we compared PI,T for the drag conditions of a nonentangled whale, with surface drag factor γ following disentanglement (i.e., γ = 1.0), to the conditions of an entangled whale, towing three gear configurations tested in this experiment, with surface drag factor g calculated for the mean ± SD dive
Venetoclax depth prior to disentanglement (i.e., γ = 1.6). Dive Parameters—Eg 3911 completed n = 152 dives over the 6 h deployment period, to a median (IQR) depth of 11.50 (10.97) m and duration of 98.7 (82.1) s (Fig. 5). Within the Sedation/Entangled phase, there was no significant difference between the depth or duration of dives completed in the 21 min prior to (n = 7) and the 50 min following (n = 45) sedative injection (Z = 0.402 and 0.188; P = 0.6876 and 0.8511, respectively; Table 3). Dive depth increased significantly with every phase (χ2 = 26.66, P < 0.0001; Fig. 6). Median
dive depth was significantly (138%) shallower in Sedation/Entangled compared to Disentangled (Z = −6.121, P < 0.0001). Significant increases in dive depth occurred between Disentangled and Recovery (Z = 4.607, P < 0.0001), though only by 19%. Even when considering increases in approximate regional MCE water column depth with time, proportional dive depth was significantly shallower in Sedation/Entangled (by 95%) compared to following the removal of gear and buoys (i.e., in Disentangled; Z = −5.216, P < 0.0001; Fig. 6). Further, we observed no significant difference in proportional dive depth between Disentangled and Recovery phases (Z = −0.679, P = 0.497). Descent rates (m/s) during dives differed significantly between phases (χ2 = 49.87, P < 0.0001; Fig. 6), where descents during Sedation/Entanglement were 57% slower than in Disentangled (Z = −6.287, P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the descent rates in Disentangled and Recovery (Z = 0.535, P = 0.5927). Ascent rates (m/s) during dives also differed significantly between phases (χ2 = 46.22, P < 0.0001; Fig. 6), with significantly slower ascents (31%) during Sedation/Entanglement compared to in Disentanglement (Z = −5.948, P < 0.0001). Similar to descent rate, ascent rate did not differ between Disentanglement and Recovery (Z = 0.090, P = 0.9285). For Eg 3911 (h = 1 m, d = 2.20 m), wave drag is maximal within 0.