Liver showed intense vascular dilation
and congestion, sinusoidal congestion but no cholestasis, necrosis or inflammation. Kidneys also presented intense vascular dilation and congestion involving the glomerular capillaries and interstitial vasculature. Brains showed only moderate vascular congestion and edema but no necrosis or any other alteration. Representative Epigenetics inhibitor photomicrographies are shown in Fig. 2. Penile erection is a complex neurovascular phenomenon. In resting conditions cavernous smooth muscle fibers maintain a high intracellular calcium concentration that keeps the fibers contracted and prevent penile engorgement with blood and the consequent erection (Burnett, 1995). Under cavernous
nerve stimulation the enzyme nitric-oxide-synthase (NOS) is activated and the production of NO triggers an increase in cyclic-GMP and decrease in cytoplasmic calcium levels as well as phosphorylation of myosin, inducing the relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscles leading to penile erection (Burnett, 1995, 1997). Modern drugs used for erectile dysfunction impair the breakdown of cyclic GMP by inhibiting preferentially phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), one of the more than eleven PDE types already described. Sildenafil, verdanafil and tadalafil are members of this growing family of PDE5 inhibitors currently in use (Boolell et al., 1996; Goldstein et al., 1998). The present report demonstrates that Tx2-6 toxin can induce priapism in doses as low as to avoid most of the toxic life-threatening Cobimetinib mw symptoms. Unfortunately the useful dose range is still narrow compromising the application of this toxin in direct therapeutic practice. The mechanism of death observed in mice submitted to both crude venom and purified toxin seems to be related to vascular congestion and pulmonary hemorrhage,
which however was only focal. This should be regarded as important once lung is strongly related to NO production in pathological conditions (Lee et al., 2001). Both crude venom and pure toxin produced similar pathological findings with intense vascular congestion in kidney, liver, lungs and myocardium as well as a discrete brain edema. Therefore, we can suppose that the Amisulpride isolated toxin retains most of the toxicity of the crude venom. Another toxin from this venom called Tx2-5 differs from Tx2-6 by only 6 amino acids and induces priapism as well as all the other symptoms induced by Tx2-6. Recent investigations on the mechanism of action of the isoform toxin Tx2-5 carried out in our laboratory showed that priapism can be completely blocked by 7-nitroindazole, a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, suggesting that the NO-cGMP cascade may be involved in the toxin’s pro-erectile mechanism of action (Yonamine et al., 2004).