In such case, the existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy, as observed in the present study, were decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities (Fig. 3), demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process. The re-epithelialization is a posterior process of an epithelial lesion, it finalizes with the formation
of a scarring. The scar formation consists in the proliferation in all directions of epithelial cell rest present in inflamed lesions that form strands or islands of epithelium, which then are invaded by vascular fibrous connective tissue. The existence of COD calculi can be explained this website considering that because of the elevated calcium concentrations detected in urine of 24 hours, this must involve periods of higher values (formation of COD) and periods with low values (formation of COM). It is interesting that almost all stones developed in the same kidney (right). This clearly implies morphoanatomic
differences between the 2 kidneys in such manner that one exhibits a complex internal structure with presence of narrow cavities of low urodynamic efficacy. This demonstrates the importance of morphoanatomy as a factor involved in lithogenesis. No similar cases have been previously click here described in the literature. This work was supported by the project CTQ2010-18271 from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (Gobierno de España), FEDER funds (European Union) and Mephenoxalone the project grant 9/2011 from the Conselleria d’Educació, Cultura i Universitat (Govern
de les Illes Balears). “
“Historically, those who had penile amputation have been pushed toward gender reassignment surgery because of the poor outcomes of historic attempts at phalloplasty.1 Since the first radial artery free flap (RAFF) phalloplasty technique was performed in 1984, the number of patients with full phalloplasty has been rising, and the challenges and complications of treatment within this patient population have become worthy of study. The use of hair-bearing skin for the phalloplasty carries extra complications because of the introduction of skin epithelial elements into a previously urothelium-exclusive environment. These patients are generally followed up very closely, as the complications of such a major surgery are frequent and often requiring quick correction.2 and 3 We present a case of a patient who presented after >2 years of no follow-up for complications of his procedure. The patient is a 35-year-old male with a past medical history of assault with traumatic amputation of penis and testicles in February 2011. The patient had no other medical, surgical, or social history. In May 2011 a RAFF phalloplasty was performed. Patient course after initial repair was complicated by wound dehiscence and fistula formation with stricturing.