In addition microarray technology allows discovery of unexpected findings in complex exper iments. Such findings may turn out to be both interesting and important. Background Flavonoids, are group of polyphenolic add to your list compounds, known to have significant anti tumor, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities. Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of fruit and vegetables, rich in flavonoids, is protective against various forms of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. Luteolin, 3,4,5,7 tetrahydroxyflavone, an important member of the flavonoid family has shown to exert immunomodulatory effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as mul tiple sclerosis, which has an underlying T cell medi ated autoimmune pathology.
In vitro studies show that luteolin inhibits T cell activation and reduces the proliferation of autoreactive T cells induced Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries by both alpha B crystallin and the murine encephalitogen proteolipid protein peptide, candi date autoantigens in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis respectively. In addition, luteolin blocks myelin basic protein induced mast Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries cells stimulation which are capable of activating T cells. Furthermore, luteolin has been shown to reduce induc tion of proinflammatory cytokine from LPS stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. LPS stimulated dendritic cells and IL Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 1? activated astrocytes in culture. A recent study shows that inter peritoneal administration or oral treatment of luteolin suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE and prevents relapse when administered either before or after EAE disease onset.
The EAE suppression by luteolin is related in part to its ability to inhibit mast cell activation. The activation of brain mast cells, which are located perivascularly, results in an increase in blood brain barrier permeability and the release of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries cytokines and chemokines necessary for the migration of activated T cells into the CNS, thereby facilitating T cell mediated inflammatory processes. Luteolin and its glucoside metabolite, luteolin 7 O gluco side, are potent inhibitor of MMP 9 activity, suggest ing that luteolin may interfere with the migration of activated immune cells into the CNS via modulation of proteins crucial for this migration. This notion is sup ported by an in vivo study showing that luteolin treatment prevents monocyte migration across the brain endothe lium, resulting in reduction of inflammation and axonal damage in the CNS of the EAE mice. The immunomodulatory effects of luteolin are similar to those of its Ivacaftor molecular weight close relative quercetin. However, in vitro and in vivo studies show that luteolin has enhanced immunomodulatory activities compared to quercetin.