Another team at the National Institute of Health is testing a 2-step vaccine that uses DNA from stem-reactive antibodies to prime the immune system, followed by regular BMS-907351 influenza vaccination. A study showed that this 2-step approach protected mice against influenza strains from 1934 through 2007; and the vaccine is now in human-trial phase. In the light of this knowledge, it can be predicted safely that stem-reactive antibodies are thus promising as therapeutic agents against pandemic H1N1, as well as most other H1N1 and H5N1 influenza strains, and have all the potential to be developed into a universal influenza vaccine.
A prospective, observational study over a period of 6 months (January�CJune, 2008) was conducted after the approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee at a tertiary care teaching hospital located in North India.
The study was conducted by the Department of Pharmacology with the help of Dermatology Department and used spontaneous reporting of ADR for the collection of data. All patients presenting to the dermatology OPD with cutaneous manifestations after drug consumption and those referred from other departments were included in the study. Referrals and OPD patients when necessary were hospitalized for further management. The diagnosis of the CADR was done by the senior dermatologist on duty. Causality assessment of the reported ADR was done by establishing the drug use with elaborate elicitation of the history, temporal association with ADR, response following stoppage and rechallenge. Rechallenge was done after taking patient’s consent.
It was performed following stoppage of the drug for certain period of time depending upon the clinical status of the patient and considering the risk�Cbenefit ratio. ADRs were graded as definite, possible and probable according to WHO causality assessment scale. Cutaneous reactions due to drug abuse, errors in drug administration and in patients with incomplete history were not included in the final analysis. Patients were specifically asked about the intake of any alternative medicine as they do have high potential to cause CADRs. Such patients were also excluded from the study. All reactions were classified into dermatologically distinct morphological patterns by a senior dermatologist on duty and recorded by a pharmacologist in a prefixed proforma for the study.
All the patients were given adequate treatment Cilengitide (soothing lotions, local/oral antibiotics or steroids) depending upon the severity of CADR. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and results were expressed as percentages. RESULTS Of the total 91 cases reported during the study, 47 (51.7%) were females and 44 (48.3%) were males. The male to female ratio was 0.93:1. The maximum number of cases was seen in the age group 21�C30 years (25.27%) followed by the age group 31�C40 years (23.07%) [Figure 1].