This work was supported by grants from the National S&T Major Project for Infectious Diseases (2013ZX10002002 and 2012ZX10002001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81271826), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing
(7122108), the 111 Project (B07001). Conflict of interest The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. “
“Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia . It is a mosquito-borne CP-868596 cell line viral disease, which is seasonally endemic or epidemic in nearly every country in the continent. There are an estimated 50,000 cases of JE with 10,000 deaths every year, mostly among children younger than 10 years  and . JE is however, a vaccine-preventable disease, and several inactivated or live attenuated
JE vaccines are currently in use in pediatric populations in Asian countries  and . In Taiwan, vaccination with an inactivated mouse brain derived JE vaccine (MBDV) is included in the national immunization program. According to the current vaccination policy set by the Taiwan Center for Disease Control, immunization is based on a 2-dose primary immunization schedule (doses given at 15 months of age, then 2 weeks later), a booster dose one year later, plus a second booster at 6 years of age. Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccinations are also given at the ages of 15 months and 6 years. A concomitant administration of a JE with an MMR vaccine Calpain may facilitate learn more the adherence to
vaccination programs and a protection as early as possible against these diseases. The JE chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a live attenuated vaccine that has been shown to induce 99.1% seroconversion rate 30 days after a subcutaneous administration and elicit seroconversion rate in more than 93% of adults 14 days after vaccination . Data from previous studies conducted in pediatric populations in Thailand and the Philippines showed 95% seroconversion rate to primary vaccination with JE-CV in toddlers from 12 months of age, and no safety concerns were identified during these studies  and . This Phase III study was designed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of JE-CV and MMR vaccines when administered concomitantly or separately, 6 weeks apart, in toddlers aged 12 to 18 months. The primary objective was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of the immunogenicity of concomitant administration of JE-CV and MMR vaccines compared with separate administration (6 weeks apart), in terms of the seroconversion rates against the four antigens. Secondary objectives were to describe the immune response to JE-CV after one dose of JE-CV, and to describe the immune response to MMR vaccine after one dose of MMR vaccine, irrespective of the order of administration or whether this was separate or concomitant.