5 Frances6 had suggested that the switch to a dimensional model was not a matter of “whether, but when and which” (p 110). Frances was at that time the Chair of the forthcoming DSM-IV.7 It has now been almost 20 years since DSM-IV, and the primary coordinators of the forthcoming fifth edition of the diagnostic manual are embracing a shift Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the entire manual toward a dimensional classification.8 “We have decided that one, if not the major difference, between DSM-IV and DSM-5 will be the more prominent use of dimensional measures.”3, p649 Frances6 had asked not only when, but which dimensional model
should be used. The text of DSM-IV-TR2 makes reference to dimensions from six alternative models: (i) the five domains of the FFM, consisting of neuroticism versus emotional stability, extraversion versus introversion, openness versus closedness to experience, agreeableness versus antagonism, and
conscientiousness versus undependability9; (ii) AZD4547 mouse Cloninger’s10 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical seven-dimensional model (four temperaments of harm avoidance, novelty seeking, reward dependence, and persistence, along with three character traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendance); (iii) the four-factor model of Livesley,“ consisting of emotional dysregulation, dissocial behavior, inhibitedness, and compulsivity; (iv) the three-factor Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical model of Clark and Watson,12,13 consisting of negative affectivity, positive affectivity, and constraint; (v) the interpersonal circumplex dimensions of agency and communion14; and (vi) the three polarities (ie, self-other, active-passive, and pleasure-pain) proposed by Millon.15 The first DSM-5 research planning conference8 included a work group whose task was to lay the conceptual groundwork for the eventual Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical development of a dimensional model of personality
disorder.16 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The members of this work group focused in particular on the dimensional models of Livesley,11 Clark and Watson,12 Cloninger,10 and the FFM.9 In a subsequent DSM-5 research planning conference devoted to shifting the PDs toward a dimensional classification, Widiger and Simonsen17 proposed a four-dimensional model in an effort to find a common ground among the major alternatives. This model consisted of emotional dysregulation Sclareol versus emotional stability, extraversion versus introversion, antagonism versus compliance, and constraint versus impulsivity. Included within each domain were the normal and abnormal trait scales from existing alternative models. They suggested though that a fifth broad domain, unconventionality versus closedness to experience, would also be necessary to fully account for all of the maladaptive trait scales included within the alternative dimensional models. This fifth domain was not included within their common model because it is missing from some of the predominant alternatives, including the four-factor model of Livesley11 and the three-factor model of Clark.