The anticarcinogenic effects of turmeric and curcumin are due to direct antioxidant and free-radical scavenging effects and their ability to indirectly increase glutathione levels, thereby aiding in hepatic detoxification of mutagens and carcinogens and in inhibiting nitrosamine formation.[23,24] Antimicrobial Turmeric extract and the essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits the growth selleck catalog of a variety of bacteria, parasites, and pathogenic fungi. Improvements in lesions were observed in the dermatophyte- and fungi-infected guinea pigs, as at 7 days post-turmeric application, the lesions disappeared. Curcumin has also been found to have moderate activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania major.
 Cardiovascular effects Turmeric’s protective effects on the cardiovascular system include lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels, decreasing susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to lipid peroxidation, and inhibiting platelet aggregation. These effects have been noted even with low doses of turmeric. A study of 18 atherosclerotic rabbits administered low-dose (1.6-3.2 mg/kg body weight, daily) turmeric extract demonstrated decreased susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation in addition to lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Higher dose did not decrease lipid peroxidation of LDL, but cholesterol and triglyceride level decreases were noted, although to a lesser degree than with lower dose. Turmeric extract’s effect on cholesterol levels may be due to decreased cholesterol uptake in the intestines and increase conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver.
 Local effects Fresh juice from the rhizome or a paste prepared from turmeric or decoction is often used as a local application as well as internally in the treatment of leprosy, snake bites, and vomiting associated with pregnancy. Gastric effects Curcumin has a significant role in cases of gastric ulcers. An open, phase II trial was performed on 25 patients with endoscopically diagnosed gastric ulcer. Participants were provided 600 mg powdered turmeric, five times daily. After 4 weeks, ulcers had completely healed in 48% patients. The success rate increased over time, with 76% being ulcer free after 12 weeks of treatment. No significant adverse reactions or blood abnormalities were noted.
 Chronic anterior uveitis Thirty-two patients with chronic anterior uveitis were provided 375 mg curcumin, three times daily for 12 weeks. Curcumin was effective in 86% patients and was as effective as corticosteroid therapy, the only available standard Batimastat treatment. Dental applications of turmeric Turmeric can be used in following ways to offer relief from dental problems. Dental pain Massaging the aching teeth with roasted, ground turmeric eliminates pain and swelling.
The following sites and search engines were used: HINARI [http://www.who.int/hinari/], Medline (Pubmed and OVID), Google scholar, selleck chemicals llc and Science Direct. The selection process is as illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1 Flow diagram showing reviewed documents. Medical record and documentation Revised health service processes and procedures can be implemented to improve providers�� performance . This provides essential information for employees [9,10]. Therefore, well-trained health professionals, high quality facility, equipment, and good record keeping systems are important for health institutions like hospitals. Patient records and registers must be kept confidential and protected. It saves time as well as increases the chance of getting the required data .
Reporting clinical data is a pillar for international ethical, scientific, and standardized clinical practice. Compliance with this standard provides public assurance being consistent with the principles developed by the Declaration of Helsinki, and that the clinical trial data credibility . Patient records provide continuous information about patients�� medical treatment . They are essential for the patients�� present and future healthcare decision making. Hence, record officers and clerks who generate and process medical data should have sufficient and basic education to spell patient names as well as other related files accurately and correctly . The input data is processed into output information by the information system . High standard healthcare can be ensured by the quality of the data entered the system.
This has an important impact on government budget to sustain health service provision . Therefore, accurate and relevant information becomes vital in assisting governments�� decision making regarding service quality . Subsequently, these record systems need to be stored in a manner that maintains integrity; and secures information confidentiality . Information systems include manual and computerized data Technologies. But, the current paper-based record system is inadequate in terms of documentation, disruption, and substantial delay in the healthcare services. Advanced information technologies, on the hand, provide clinicians with real-time information access .
Accurate, relevant and structured information is capable of promoting excellent clinical care, measuring efficiency of treatment, and facilitating the interaction of healthcare professionals . According to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI), guidelines should be reviewed at least annually in order to ensure appropriate processes and competence. A quality manager is responsibility for ensuring, controlling, and maintaining evidence for effective operation . Records need to be stored so as to maintain integrity, protect Carfilzomib accessibility, and facilitate data retrieval system .