, 2010; Pedersen, et al , 2009; Starkstein, 2009), as well as in

, 2010; Pedersen, et al., 2009; Starkstein, 2009), as well as in other neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington’s and Alzheimer’s disease (Bonelli and Cummings, 2008; Chow et al., 2009; Starkstein et al., 2006; Marin, 1991). These conditions often involve disruption of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops (Alexander et al., 1986) but the mechanisms underlying apathy when there is widespread neurodegeneration has been difficult to study. Focal lesion cases such as KD provide important information about the neural substrates underlying apathy and modulation

of this behavioural state with neuropharmacological intervention. This research was supported by The Wellcome Trust and NIHR BRC at UCLH/UCL. We thank KD for his participation in these studies. “
“The interaction Erastin clinical trial between numbers and space was widely established through a myriad of behavioral (e.g., Bachthold et al., 1998, Dehaene et al., 1993 and Fisher et al., 2003), imaging (e.g., Cantlon et al., 2009, Göbel et al., 2006, Göbel et al., 2001 and Hubbard et al., 2005) and brain damage (e.g.,

Doricchi et al., 2005 and Spalding and Zangwill, 1950) studies. By now, it is well accepted that numerical and spatial representations share common cognitive and neural mechanisms in the human mind and brain (Walsh, 2003). In recent years, a peculiar condition called number-space synesthesia was recognized to have a great potential Rapamycin ic50 for the study of numerical cognition in general and the linkage between numbers and space in particular. Number-space synesthetes ID-8 are otherwise normal individuals who consciously visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. In some cases the numbers are arranged in a complex pattern and in other cases they are simply aligned on a horizontal or vertical meridian. These spatial representations seem to be triggered automatically and usually remain constant across a lifetime.

This phenomenon of “”visualized numerals”" was first introduced in 1880 by Sir Francis Galton (Galton, 1880). However, a century passed before it was experimentally renaissanced. To date, most behavioral research on number-space synesthesia sought to reveal the implicit costs and/or benefits of the synesthetes’ conscious number representation on their numerical cognition (Cohen Kadosh and Gertner, 2011, Cohen Kadosh et al., in press, Simner, 2009 and Simner et al., 2009). Specifically, it was found that synesthetes’ spatial-numerical perceptions can affect performance in various numerical tasks, varying from number comparison tasks (Gertner et al., 2009, Hubbard et al., 2009, Piazza et al., 2006, Sagiv et al., 2006 and Tang et al., 2008) through parity judgments (Jarick et al., 2009 and Jarick et al., 2011) up to basic arithmetic exercises (Seron et al., 1992 and Ward et al., 2009).

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