All cases of Kola Bay freezing were documented over
a period of more than 100 years, so it can be regarded as one of the indicators this website of climatic cycles in the Arctic seas. In the 20th century Kola Bay freezing occurred at intervals close to 30 years (Matishov et al. 2009). These situations were caused by a combination of meteorological and hydrographic factors. The presence of a stable anticyclone above Scandinavia for a long time (no less than ten days) is a significant factor in this. Certainly, climate cycles do not run like clockwork. An example of their disruption was the situation on the Bering Sea shelf at the beginning of 2012. Ice remained there for a record time, more than 100 days. During the history of satellite observations (since 1979), this happened for just the second time. The role of macrosynoptic processes in the formation of anomalies in the European climate, as well as hydrographic and ice extent regime of the Arctic seas, requires further research. The warming of 1990–2000 occurred under conditions of intensive western and eastern transfer in middle latitudes. During recent years, the recurrence and especially the duration of
anticyclonic blocking above Eurasia has increased, which has led to the forcing of a continental type of climate. At the same time the trajectories of north Atlantic cyclones have shifted to high latitudes, and that is favourable for positive anomalies of water temperatures and ice extent decrease in the Arctic seas in both the warm and cold seasons. In central and southern Europe, the Black and Caspian Seas, and also the Sea of Azov, such Y27632 situations cause strong Progesterone positive anomalies of air and water in summer, and sharp falls of temperature and extensive ice formation in winter. In the opinion of Shakina & Ivanova (2012) the development of a blocking situation can nowadays be successfully forecast only after it has actually come into
existence. Given the current level of knowledge is not possible to predict the emergence of such a situation, and especially its duration. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain a probabilistic estimate of such anomalies from both the synoptic meteorology point of view (the frequency and duration of blocking situations, the intensity and location of pressure fields at different levels) and the use of climatological criteria. In the course of research into the global climate and ocean regimes it is important to expedite the development of new technologies and software as well as the improvement of computation algorithms for climate norms and anomalies. Not just oceanological but also hydrobiological data should be used for marine climate assessments. Thus, according to the biomass changes of some species of polychaetes and crustaceans, it appears that fauna react to temperature anomalies with a 3–8 year delay (Matishov et al. 2012b).